retail sales definition: What is Retail? Definition, Types, Functions and Example of Retailing

retail sales definition

Core durable goods orders refers to new orders for U.S. core durable goods, which are the total durable goods orders excluding transportation equipment.

retail sales definition

These decisions depend on careful analysis of the market, demand, competition as well as the retailer’s skills and expertise. Providing Information to the customers about the products on sale also falls under the purview of retailers. Further, such information must also be shared with the wholesalers to ensure proper supply of goods as per demand. Finally, the most striking difference between retail and wholesale lies in the price.

Retail sales tell you how much demand exists for consumer goods. That’s critical becauseconsumer spendingmakes up almost 70% of total U.S. economic output. Retail accounts for almost 20% of annual sales for many retailers.

How To Read the Retail Sales Numbers

Depending on the hours they work, retail salespersons may have to open or close cash registers. This includes counting the money in the register and separating charge slips, coupons, and exchange vouchers. Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of retail sales workers with similar financial literacy for millennials occupations. Overall employment of retail sales workers is projected to show little or no change from 2021 to 2031. This is an activity where a market research company, watchdog group, or even a retail owner sends in a decoy shopper to evaluate the products or the customer service in a store.

  • Official retail sales figures for March are published next week.
  • Retail is the sale of goods to consumers—not for them to sell, but for use and consumption by the purchaser.
  • The percentage increase or decrease from month to month gives a good indication of whether the economy is contracting or expanding, and how fast.
  • According to PCI-compliance standards, unsecured card files are generally a high-risk way to store and manage sensitive customer information.
  • Retail sales workers maintain knowledge of current sales and promotions.

The high volume of retail sales pushed up the value of the pound. Convenient pau units of both 200 grams and 250 grams are in current use in retail sales in different parts of the country. The percent change of employment for each occupation from 2021 to 2031.

Many of these large retail chains also produce their own private labels which compete alongside manufacturer brands. Considerable consolidation of retail stores has changed the retail landscape, transferring power away from wholesalers and into the hands of the large retail chains. In Britain and Europe, the retail sale of goods is designated as a service activity. The European Service Directive applies to all retail trade including periodic markets, street traders and peddlers.

How to Become a Retail Sales Worker About this section

Stores like H&M and Zara have built their businesses on fast fashion. Companies that bundle together a package of goods or services to sell for a lower price than they would charge if the customer bought all of those goods or services separately. You can purchase Apple products in stores like WalMart or Best Buy, or through your cell phone carrier. However, you can also buy products directly from an Apple store or off the Apple website. So imagine you’re a manufacturer, and you need raw materials — let’s say lumber.

retail sales definition

Pete Rathburn is a copy editor and fact-checker with expertise in economics and personal finance and over twenty years of experience in the classroom. Over 60 filling stations are currently retailing high quality biofuels made from recovered vegetable oil. There is still the person who obtains his vegetables from the local vegetable market and retails them across the counter.

The way that brands are displayed is also part of the overall retail design. Where a product is placed on the shelves has implications for purchase likelihood as a result of visibility and access. Ambient conditions, such as lighting, temperature and music, are also part of the overall retail environment. It is common for a retail store to play music that relates to their target market. Retail sales workers get hourly wages, commissions, or a combination of the two.

Sure, you could technically purchase 100 printers from a Staples if your business grew to that size. But this is not considered a standard order, and it would probably take some time to fill. Retailers, especially when compared to wholesalers, sell products at much smaller quantities.

Importance of The Retail Sales Metric

Inventory must be kept, shelves must be kept full, and payments have to be collected. Retailers are more than places to purchase merchandise, however—they provide manufacturers an outlet so that they can focus on creating their products. Retail involves the sale of merchandise from a single point of purchase directly to a customer who intends to use that product.

retail sales definition

The mystery shopper behaves like a regular customer and then provides feedback to help the store improve its practices. This is a method of selling merchandise for double its wholesale price. It’s an easy way for retailers to cover costs and make a reasonable profit.

They must clearly and effectively explain the benefits of the merchandise. We have all the tools you need to start, run, and grow your business, whether you’re selling in person, online, or both. And we’ve made all our tools to work together as one system, saving you time and money — and making decisions easier. So you can get back to doing the work you love and focusing on whatever’s next.

Store loyalty

This metric is a valuable way to determine whether the size of your sales is growing — ideally, you want increasingly larger sales over time. Retailers usually track sales on a daily, weekly , monthly , quarterly and yearly basis. They generate the reports on a daily basis and track performance against their set budget, as well as last year’s performance. We provide third-party links as a convenience and for informational purposes only. Intuit does not endorse or approve these products and services, or the opinions of these corporations or organizations or individuals. Intuit accepts no responsibility for the accuracy, legality, or content on these sites.

Wholesalers typically only deal with limited products as well, where retailers tend to handle many different products at one time. These retailers sell all types of food and beverage products, and sometimes also home products and consumer electronics as well. The retail supply chain consists of manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, and the consumer (end-user).

The job is open to applicants with over two years’ experience in retail. Economic Research Resources Explore resources provided by the Research Division at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Chain for poor management and not creating a sufficiently large batch in the first place. Chains ended hazard pay for these workers as if the pandemic was over and they were no longer at risk.

Core retail sales are an important measure of consumer spending, complementing the broader monthly retail sales number. Overall monthly retail sales show the big picture of consumer spending, but the core number strips out food, energy, and other fluctuating figures. Examples of retail sales include clothing purchases, furniture buys, and meals purchases from food services businesses.

Proper retail marketing efforts, both traditional and digital, are of vital importance to the success of retail. The Manufacturer forms the first link in the retail supply chain. Manufacturers are the ones responsible for producing the finished goods using raw materials, labor, and technology. Housing starts are a key economic indicator as a monthly measure of new residential construction. Add retail sales to one of your lists below, or create a new one.

Wholesale and Manufacturing Sales Representatives Wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives sell goods for wholesalers or manufacturers to businesses, government agencies, and other organizations. Sales Engineers Sales engineers sell complex scientific and technological products or services to businesses. CareerOneStop includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code. Demand for car parts and parts salespersons is expected to continue as growing numbers of older cars require repairs.

These are consumer products that are routinely purchased by customers, who usually give little thought or planning to them. The classic definition refers to distributing raw materials that are stored and transported in large quantities. It could mean buying a large quantity of a single item or it could refer to the storage area for pallets. The budget takes into consideration the seasonality of the business, and sets the expected sales based on that.

A leading indicator is a measurable set of data that, if monitored, can give some insight into the future behavior of the economy or a business. Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts. We also reference original research from other reputable publishers where appropriate.

This is a pricing strategy used by high-end retailers in which an item is priced at a high level to denote its exclusivity, quality, or luxury. Prestige pricing is intended to attract status-conscious consumers or those who want to buy premium products. As a retailer, you are the marketer, salesperson, and fulfillment specialist for your business. Furthermore, retailers typically need to worry about advertising costs, while this is not the case with wholesalers.

Accounting Concepts and Conventions Business


A lot of times, suppliers are not paid exactly when they deliver the goods. The accrual period allows the supplier to note the income from delivering goods at the time those goods were delivered and not the time when those goods were paid for. The accrual concept allows for precise measurement of income and expenses. The accrual concept allows for the income and expenses to be stated in the same accounting period that it was incurred in and not in the accounting period in which the income was obtained or the expenses were paid. Usually, when keeping books, accountants do not think that the businesses would soon be bankrupt or be liquidated; this allows the accountants to put a price on assets that can be correct for a long time.

If the business records this cost as the cost of the business, then it will misguide the actual profit and loss of the business. Income should be properly “matched” with the expenses of a given accounting period. In addition, a cautious view is taken for future problems and costs of the business (the are “provided for” in the accounts” as soon as their is a reasonable chance that such costs will be incurred in the future.

This concept assumes that the organization and business owners are two independent entities. Hence, the business translation and personal transaction of its owner are different. For example, when the business owner invests his money in the business, it is recorded as a liability of the business to the owner. Similarly, when the owner takes away from the business cash/goods for his/her personal use, it is not treated as a business expense.

This annual accounting period imitates a basic 12-month calendar period. The accounting period concept serves the purpose of analysis and comparison of the financial data of the company for two different periods. When two different periods are referred to, analysis can be made regarding various financial parameters that suggest the company’s growth or downfall.

How Accounting Period Work?

No doubt, we reduce the value of assets providing depreciation to assets, but we ignore the market value of the assets. Accounting is the process of recording, summarizing, and reporting financial transactions to oversight agencies, regulators, and the IRS. This concept allows for the value of an asset to be noted in the balance sheet at the price at which it was purchased, or cost price, as opposed to the current price of that asset. The importance of the accounting concept is visible in the fact that its application is involved in every step of recording a financial transaction of the entity.

  • Capitalization is an accounting method in which a cost is included in the value of an asset and expensed over the useful life of that asset.
  • These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts.
  • If assigning the monetary value to the transactions is not possible, it will not be recorded in the financial statement.
  • But the owner can’t wait for an unlimited period to know the financial status of the business.
  • This fact makes the problem of measuring income for an accounting period the most difficult problem in accounting.

Now if we conclude that the values of coats and jackets are Rs 2,000 and Rs 15,000 respectively, then we can easily book the value of stock as Rs 29,500 (as a result of 5000+7500+2000+15000) in our books. In other words, the revenue concept states that revenue is realized when cash is received or the right to receive cash on the sale of goods or services or both have been created. In brief, the accrual concept states that revenue is recognized when realized and expenses are recognized when they become due and payable irrespective of the cash receipt or cash payment. Thus, the financial year’s entire duration is one year, and its beginning and end dates are fixed and cannot be changed, in contrast to the accounting period, which can be cut or extended from one year. Income statements for management are therefore prepared more frequently.

4­–5 Calendar Year

A capital asset is an asset with a useful life longer than a year that is not intended for sale in the regular course of the business’s operation. Finance Strategists is a leading financial literacy non-profit organization priding itself on providing accurate and reliable financial information to millions of readers each year. While the true profit or loss of a business can only be determined when the business finally closes down, it is clearly unwise to wait that long before learning about its financial health. It is useful in comparison of financial data of two or more periods. For example, a business may choose a fiscal year from Feb. 1 to Jan. 31 or observe a week fiscal year, where each year rotates between being 52 or 53 weeks long. If a business wants to select the fiscal year for tax reporting, they can do so by submitting their first income tax return observing that tax year.

You need to know about revenue recognition , the matching principle , and the accrual principle. Transactions Of The BusinessA business transaction is the exchange of goods or services for cash with third parties (such as customers, vendors, etc.). The goods involved have monetary and tangible economic value, which may be recorded and presented in the company’s financial statements. The periodicity concept states that the entity or the business needs to carry out the accounting for a definite period, usually the financial year. The period for drawing financial statements can vary from monthly to quarterly to annually. It helps in identifying any changes occurring over different periods.

5 Accounting period Concept

Where accounting policies are changed, companies are required to disclose this fact and explain the impact of any change. Our accounting is based on the assumption that a business unit is a going concern. We record all the financial transaction of a business in keeping this point of view in our mind that a business unit is a going concern; not a gone concern. Otherwise, the banker will not provide loans, the supplier will not supply goods or services, the employees will not work properly, and the method of recording the transaction will change altogether. Accounting is full of assumptions, concepts, standards, and conventions.


The matching concept refers to reporting of the revenues and expenses in the same time period. The revenues and expenses of a company must be recognized by the company under the same accounting period. The money measurement concept refers to the transaction recorded by a business only in terms of money. What it means is that for a business, an account book can record only those transactions which involve monetary transfers. Any other transfers or transactions which do not involve any money transfer are not recorded into the accounts books. States that only those transactions are recorded and measured in monetary terms.

What is Accounting Period Concept?

Due to this policy, income and expenditure are divided into categories i.e. capital nature and revenue nature. The year that begins on January 1 and ends on January 31 is termed as calendar year whereas the year that begins on April 1 and ends on March 31 is termed as financial year. However, not all businesses are required to adhere to the one-year rule. Our goal is to deliver the most understandable and comprehensive explanations of financial topics using simple writing complemented by helpful graphics and animation videos. We follow strict ethical journalism practices, which includes presenting unbiased information and citing reliable, attributed resources.

Its related discuss the accounting period concept transactions must all be recorded during the same time frame. Obligatory accounting provisions must be created to ensure that the matching principle is upheld. With this convention, accounts recognise transactions at the point of sale or transfer of legal ownership – rather than just when cash actually changes hands.

What are Accounting Conventions?

The fiscal year refe to an annual period that does not end on December 31. The International Financial Reporting Standards allows 52 weeks as an accounting period. There are many companies that follow the 52 or 53 weeks fiscal calendar for their financial tracking and reporting. On the other hand, the sale of goods on the credit of $2000, will be recorded as an income because the ownership of the goods has transferred to buyers even though it was not received in cash.

accounts book

The results of each interval will represent the company’s financial result in each such interval. Thus, the one-by-one comparison is possible only regarding the accounting period. Whether a company has incurred losses or profits is a vague question if any fixed interval is not allotted. Thus, the concept gives meaning to financial statements and helps the investors properly analyze financial results.

2022 Preliminary Results –

2022 Preliminary Results.

Posted: Tue, 28 Mar 2023 09:04:07 GMT [source]

For example, if you want to see the changes in cash levels over the course of the business and all their relevant transactions, you would look at the general ledger, which shows all the debits and credits of cash. The accounting cycle incorporates all the accounts, journal entries, T accounts, debits, and credits, adjusting entries over a full cycle. Here, if we want to book the value of stock in our accounting record, we need the value of coats and jackets in terms of money.

trial balance under the audit period will be filed in: Trial Balance: Rules Explained With Examples

retained earnings

Locating ledger and journal errors or inefficiencies in the many stages of the accounting system. It is used to ensure that the totals of all the debit and credit balances are equal. When the total of the debit balances is not equal to the total of the credit balances, it means that there are certain errors.


The trial balance shows real, nominal, and personal accounts, while a balance sheet shows only real and personal accounts. In this method, the process of totalling the ledger accounts on both sides is followed by balancing the accounts. Account balancing is a process where both sides are tallied by placing the balance on the side where the amount falls short.

Trial Balance? – Know Concept, Preparation and Example

This enables you to get only the final amount in the Trial Balance and match the credit and debit side. This is done after recording all the debit balances of the various accounts of ledger put into debit column of Trial Balance. If such errors enter the financial statements, the issues for auditors and regulators then have to do with materiality and intent. This ensures that the audit is carried out in a uniform, efficient and comprehensive manner in accordance with audit standards. Reconcile the details with GSTR-9 in part A of GSTR-9C and differences are to be reported therein.6.Thereafter Certification has to be done in part B either by CA or CMA. 7.Part B of GSTR-9C in itself is an audit as well as certification.

If an assessee fails to adhere to the deadline for getting the books of account audited, it will attract penalty under section 271B of the Act. The penalty under this section can go as high as Rs1.5 lakh or 0.5% of the total sales, turnover or gross receipts, whichever is lower. But if the taxpayer has reasonable cause for failure to get an audit done, for instance, natural calamity, or law and order disturbances, then such a penalty may be waived by the assessing officer. Trial Balance plays the role in checking and testing the arithmetical certainty of the entries posted from the journal to the ledger. If both debit and credit tallies, it is assumed that entries are correct.

financial statement

This additional level of detail reveals the activity in an account during an accounting period, which makes it easier to conduct research and spot possible errors. Accounts in the ledgers could have been debited or credited during a given accounting period before being used in a trial balance worksheet. List of accounts – Usually found on the left-hand side of the sheet, all company accounts are compiled. Most businesses follow the order of assets, liabilities, equity, dividends, revenues, and expenses.

Note that total debits and total credits to a single account are not necessarily equal, either for the period or the account’s entire history. Note especially that the difference between debit and credit totals across the account’s history, represents the current account balance. A business will prepare trial balances on a periodic basis. It is generally done once the reporting period concludes. The primary intention of preparing trial balances is to make sure that the entries in an organisation’s records and bookkeeping facilities are factually correct. A trial balance is a report which derives all information from the general ledger balances.

Trial balance items list:

The trial balance is run as part of the month-end closing process. Companies initially record their business transactions in bookkeeping accounts within the general ledger. Depending on the kinds of business transactions that have occurred, accounts in the ledgers could have been debited or credited during a given accounting period before they are used in a trial balance worksheet. Furthermore, some accounts may have been used to record multiple business transactions.

  • At the end of a particular period, submitted or prepared as per the legal regulations.
  • On a trial balance worksheet, all of the debit balances form the left column, and all of the credit balances form the right column, with the account titles placed to the far left of the two columns.
  • Thus, to check if the debit or credit amounts you record in the ledger are accurate, you need to prepare the trial balance.
  • Therefore, such types of errors indicate that the balancing of the Trial Balance Sheet does not imply the accuracy of the entries in the books of accounts.

For Tally usetrial balance under the audit period will be filed in, this application can be used for various functions such as doing data entry, sending payment reminders and maintaining proper cash flow. It also aids in the analysis of sales through which significant data-driven decisions can be taken for business growth. Where the trial balance is cast in the form of an account with credit and debit sides.

This means that both the and the credit journal entries for each of your financial transactions have been recorded correctly. However, the balancing of your trial balance does not imply that your accounting records are accurate. For instance, you may record an equal debit and credit of an incorrect amount. Thus, such an error would result in two accounts with incorrect balances.

What are adjusted trial balances?

World over, the importance of Cash Flow Statement is being specifically recognized. The Committee felt that there was a need to include the definition of the term Financial Statement in the Act, to include Profit & Loss Account, Balance Sheet, Cash Flow Statement and Notes on Accounts. View this section for all the latest information about MCA and the reports published by the Ministry.

Transcript : Syros Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Q4 2022 Earnings Call, Mar … –

Transcript : Syros Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Q4 2022 Earnings Call, Mar ….

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In this, the balance of every ledger is combined into credit and debit account column totals that are always equal. If the trial balance is accurate, the sum of credit and debit balances should be equal. The trial balance is a statement of accounts and not an account by itself. It is also never a part of the final financial statements.

If the material misstatements affect the current financial statements, the auditor should inform the appropriate management or those charged with governance. The debit and credit totals in the trial balance must match to build the new Income statement and Balance sheet correctly. Also, they must unearth and correct other material errors underlying the account balances during the trial balance period, as well. Also, they must find and fix other material errors underlying the account balances during the trial balance period, as well. The key difference between a trial balance and a balance sheet is one of scope.

Can you explain the Structure of the Reconciliation Statement GSTR-9C?

A balance sheet records not only the closing balances of accounts within a company but also the assets, liabilities, and equity of the company. It is usually released to the public, rather than just being used internally, and requires the signature of an auditor to be regarded as trustworthy. You record accounting entries in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles .

The normal due dates are prescribed under section 139 of the Act, and assessees who are required to get their accounts audited need to file returns by 30 September of every assessment year. The last date for filing the income tax returns for most taxpayers this year was 5 August. However, for those taxpayers whose accounts are required to be audited, the due date is 30 September.

The Law Offices of Frank R. Cruz Announces the Filing of a Securities Class Action on Behalf of Alico, In – Benzinga

The Law Offices of Frank R. Cruz Announces the Filing of a Securities Class Action on Behalf of Alico, In.

Posted: Wed, 01 Mar 2023 17:10:00 GMT [source]

Shareholders of a company often ask for it as it offers a comprehensive study of the accounts of a company. Various mistakes might be made while preparing a trial balance. Some may even be made before the trial balance preparation. Whatever might be the case, you must ensure that all the errors are rectified in time. This way, all the amounts will be ready to be used further in the various financial statements shortly. For this reason, company management and accountants will use the trial balance period to rigorously search out and correct all accounting errors—whether they impact the trial balance or not.

It is transferred to the loss side of the P&L account and is also reflected in the Trial Balance sheet as an entry recoverable from its profits. As seen in the format of the Trial Balance, there are several credit and debit accounts accounted for therein. Having a corresponding credit entry and vice versa, the trial balance, when right, must always tally. Similarly check other things like get confirmation for debtors and creditors, check ledgers randomly of there seems to be improper transactions..if theer are long outstanding blances… Is their any cross check like comparing current asset , non current assets, current liability and non current liability while conducting audit of Balance sheet and Trial balance. A trial balance report is essential for interpreting the financial results of any business—whether you’re a start-up or an established multinational corporation.

There is enough of it to afford a reasonable basis for an opinion on the financial statements. Considering unusual or unexpected account balances that were not previously identified. Of the following, which is the least reliable type of audit evidence? Canceled checks returned in the year-end bank statement directly to the client. Support for the auditors’ representations as to compliance with generally accepted auditing standards.

cash flow statement

For instance, improper entries and missing entries from ledgers are still considered accounting errors that are not detected by a trial balance. The preparation of trial balance occurs periodically, mostly at the end of every accounting period. The primary purpose of producing this statement is to confirm that there are no unequal journal entries in the books which can hamper the process of preparing any financial report. For instance, consider the cash account of Kapoor Pvt Ltd in the above example. The cash transactions are recorded and the cash account is closed with the remaining debit balance of Rs 6,50,000 as on May 1, 2018. Likewise, balances of other ledger accounts are ascertained and accordingly the accounts are closed with the remaining debit or credit balances.

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At the end of a particular period, submitted or prepared as per the legal regulations. In simple words, it can be said that the fundamental first step is to pass journal entries. After that, those journal entries passed would be posted to respective ledgers called ledger posting. After that, only the correct closing balances of all the ledgers could be seen from the Trial Balance. Sometimes, governing law mandates the preparation of Trial Balance, so for satisfying that purpose also, some entities prepare the trial balance.

Double-entry bookkeeping is an accounting system that records each of your business transactions into at least two different accounts. That is, each of your business transactions has an equal and opposite effect in a minimum of two different accounts. Thus, to check if the debit or credit amounts you record in the ledger are accurate, you need to prepare the trial balance. Since the debit and credit columns equal each other totaling a zero balance, we can move in the year-end financial statement preparation process and finish the accounting cycle for the period. For instance, in our vehicle sale example the bookkeeper could have accidentally debited accounts receivable instead of cash when the vehicle was sold. The debits would still equal the credits, but the individual accounts are incorrect.

Point Figure Chart


Resistance levels are prices at which large numbers of sellers are expected to enter the market. You can identify them on Point and Figure charts by 2 or more columns of X’s ending with equal tops. Point and figure (P&F) charts are unique because they have been used for 100+ years and are some of the most battle-tested charting options. P&F charts will benefit all traders who want to minimize the risk of entering a position on a false breakout.


Then the price moves at least three box sizes in the other direction. When a reversal happens, a lot of Xs or Os will appear at the same time. This is a level where traders and investors alike believe prices will begin moving higher after hitting the support mark.

When evaluating online brokers, always consult the broker’s website. makes no warranty that its content will be accurate,, useful, or reliable. You can apply almost any analysis technique to a Point & Figure chart, although you should not use analysis techniques that base their calculation methods on time. Trend lines on Point and Figure charts are plotted at an angle of 45 degrees (one square across and one up/down). When penetrated, resistance levels often become future support levels.

The new column moves in the opposite direction and is represented by the opposite character. If a column of O’s reverses, a new X column is started, and vice versa. The size of the change in prices before plotting an “X” or “O” is plotted.

price range

This value is by multiplying the box size by another user defined value, the Reversal Amount. The reversal amount is the number of bricks price must move in order for a new letter to be drawn or a new column to be created. Therefore if the box size is set to 1 ($1) and the reversal amount is set to 3, then price must move $3 in order for a new letter to be added to the chart.

How to Read Candlesticks: Charts, Patterns & Pro Tips

As the trading industry advanced, they replaced this with the Point and Figure chart. There are those who focus on fundamental analysis and others who focus on technical analysis. On technical, there are those who focus on just a single indicator like the Relative Strength Index and those who focus on a combination of the indicators.

  • Although some traders heavily depend more on the point and figure charts, others use these charts to confirm signals given by traditional charts.
  • It is for this reason that the three-box reversal became popular; it eliminated the tedious necessity of looking at every trade.
  • A breakout, for example, must move the box amount in order to signal a breakout occurred.
  • I can zoom the chart in on those, I guess, and then it would look something like yours.

The number of boxes is called the reversal amount and a new column is only started when price has retraced by that amount. The sensitivity of the chart can be varied by altering the box size. The box size is the minimum price movement recorded and serves to eliminate minor price fluctuations. Larger box sizes are used for charting longer time periods.

“Getting Started” Series

That’s because most of them are based on time, an aspect that the point and figure chart attempts to avoid. Today, this kind of charts have been computerized and one can find them in a number of charting software. To install it in the Metatrader, you need to download it from the marketplace and install it. You can also find a limited version of it in Trading View. Later on, traders started replacing the figures with specific points.

Nuveen Asset Management LLC reduces its holdings in Chart … – Best Stocks

Nuveen Asset Management LLC reduces its holdings in Chart ….

Posted: Fri, 03 Mar 2023 07:32:11 GMT [source]

There is not one person who can claim to be the discoverer of the indicator. Millions of traders participate in the industry every day, and each of these traders use different strategies to make money. It is possible to effectively trade forex today without using a chart. A step by step guide to help beginner and profitable traders have a full overview of all the important skills (and what to learn next 😉) to reach profitable trading ASAP. The same applies to a column of Os in a decreasing market. The column continues until the commodity gets to the reversal price.

The Difference Between Point-and-Figure (P&F) and Renko Charts

For example, Point and Figure charts are great for visualizing trend lines, support and resistance levels and breakouts. Point & Figure charts consist of columns of X’s and O’s that represent filtered price movements. X-Columns represent rising prices and O-Columns represent falling prices.


P&F charts are great at keeping investors in strong trends, as a lot of small counter-trend movements get filtered. Yet when a reversal happens, it can erase profits significantly or lead to huge losses. Typically, the reversal amount is three times the box size.

If Os are stacked, that means that Bitcoin is in a bearish trend. The Xs indicate price rises, and the Os indicate price drops. Compared to traditional charts such as candlestick charts, point and figure charts stack the Xs and Os and each one marks a certain price percentage move.

As I began to define and refine my own trading systems, I slowly drifted away from P&F for more sexy analysis techniques such as Elliott Wave and candlestick patterns. If you rather get everything done for you, then you can simply have our advisors provide you the professional analysis conveniently through the web app or by email. P&F Pattern Alerts can be found at end of the Predefined Scans Page. provides daily alerts for more than 15 P&F patterns on various exchanges. Also, while P&F charts may help reduce the number of false breakouts, false breakouts still occur.

The chart is composed of multiple boxes, with each box equal to a certain price level. The box is filled with an X if price increases to that level. The box is filled with an O if price decreases to that level. See how I use Point & Figure charts to confirm price targets that I’ve calculated using other methods of technical analysis. A trend will not change from a column of X’s to a column of O’s unless the stock’s share price drops by 3 “boxes”.

Using high and low prices will mean the creation of more X’s and O’s, while using only closing prices will mean fewer X’s and O’s are created. An X is created when the price moves higher by a set amount, called the box size. An O is created when the price drops the box size amount.

Asia markets rise as private survey shows sharp recovery in China services – CNBC

Asia markets rise as private survey shows sharp recovery in China services.

Posted: Fri, 03 Mar 2023 08:09:00 GMT [source]

When zeroing in on a trend reversal and an uptrend to begin, look for a horizontal row of O’s. Every point and figure chart has a predetermined, specified reversal amount. This dictates how much a security’s price needs to move in the opposite direction to warrant charting a new column in that direction. When the reversal amount is reached, a new column begins next to the previous one.

function of trading

The box size is set based on the asset’s price and the investor’s preference. There are many specific chart patterns for 3-box Reversal charts. Support is the price level at which demand is thought to be strong enough to prevent the price from declining further.

As you can see from the chart, HWAY actually exceeded the P&F count slightly, only to later rollover. The P&F target from the $13.05 low was met ($15.93), so the next target would be the count coming out of the trading range. With this additional level of clarity, let’s go back and look at the previous chart example to illustrate the count. I don’t know about you, but that doesn’t give me the warm and fuzzies either. Now, let’s apply a vertical count to the same 3-point chart instead of horizontal. The simple answer to this question is that I seek to understand how far a stock can run for the basis of calculating my risk versus reward for every trade I take on.

You will get the ranking tools that filters for the strongest stocks that are likely to move the furthest and the fastest during bullish markets. In bearish markets it also finds the best stocks to sell short. Our mission here at is to provide you with a complete solution that will let you beat the markets. Our advisors prepare continuous professional analysis based on our 100% systematic, market beating algorithms.

Book Review ‘Animal Spirits,’ by George A Akerlof and Robert J. Shiller The New York Times

animal spirits book review
animal spirits book review

Told from the multiple viewpoints of the dead man’s wife, her married lover, the lover’s wife, and both couples’ children, who are unhappily aware of their parents’ secrets, the story has a layered structure that gives it the rich, leisurely feel of a Fellini film. Though narrowly focused on two characters, “The Girl” also feels larger than its form. A young woman recently out of rehab apprentices with a circus snake charmer who hopes to charm her into loving him. He fails but years later rediscovers her in a satisfyingly bittersweet conclusion.

The bubble will burst with very unpleasant results, Shiller warned, well before that actually happened. Chapter by chapter, the analysis is fascinating and usually persuasive. Whether the larger project can be made to hang together, though, I doubt.

The global financial crisis has made it painfully clear that powerful psychological forces are imperiling the wealth of nations today. From blind faith in ever-rising housing prices to plummeting confidence in capital markets, “animal spirits” are driving financial events worldwide. In this book, acclaimed economists George Akerlof and Robert Shiller challenge the economic wisdom that got us into this mess, and put forward a bold new vision that will transform economics and restore prosperity. Like Keynes, Akerlof and Shiller know that managing these animal spirits requires the steady hand of government—simply allowing markets to work won’t do it. The only point of interest, for me, was the in-depth discussion of “money illusion” and its affects on our economy.

animal spirits book review

This book sees Macroeconomics through the lens of Behavioral Economics . Psychology in economics is a fascinating and emerging field, but you’d never know it from this shallow and reductive book. How ideas about the blending of spirit and materiality have influenced American thought and life. Chapter 11 presents an explanation for why asset prices and investment flows are so volatile.

About the Author

In this book Akerlof and Shiller convincingly introduce psychology to macroeconomics to bridge this gap. The main draw-back I found is that some chapters, especially the ones on financial markets, are less accessible to a more general audience. Note that despite the playful illustrations on the cover this is not a light pop-economics book.

Unsurprisingly, in 2001, investors were turned off of the stock market and sought alternative investments; many turned to invest in housing instead of stocks. Animal Spirits is a book about macroeconomics with an interesting twist. Rest assured this is not another mundane behavioral economics handbook.

If only we had factored those turbulent emotions into economic theory, we might not be repeating the earlier tragedy. The book sets out to discuss animal spirits, yet I still feel I’ve barely been given any information! Economics as a discipline needs to move away from ergodicity, but the vagueness of the book leads me to believe that many will think there is no valuable alternative (when there is!). The authors’ explanations have little substance and it heavily undermines their arguments. Like I said, this is behavioural economics directly related to the economy at large and it makes for fascinating reading.

The application of such ‘animal spirits’ to these problems provides a fresh perspective on their causes and potential solutions. One particular chapter tackles the issue of involuntary unemployment; the author goes on to suggest that this occurs partly because of notions of fairness in the labour market exerting upward pressure on wages. Arguably the best chapter in Animal Spirits deals with why financial prices are so volatile. The authors point to the role stories played in the 2000 internet bubble; Merrill Lynch’s advertising message changed from a conservative tone before the bubble, to an aggressive/bullish tone at the bubble’s peak. Unsurprisingly, after the bubble popped, the advertising campaign reverted back to its original conservative tone. The opening section on the psychology they equate with Animal Spirits was a little dull, though partly this is because I’ve read books that explain the subject more thoroughly and accessibly, making this reiteration laborious.

Animal Spirits

What the two have in common is the idea that once you take account of animal spirits, people can be guided, without being forced, to do what is in their best interests. In their new book, two of the most creative and respected economic thinkers currently at work, George Akerlof and Robert Shiller, argue that the key is to recover Keynes’s insight about “animal spirits” – the attitudes and ideas that guide economic action. The orthodoxy needs to be rebuilt, and bringing these psychological factors into the core of economics is the way to do it. Written in the heat of the 2008 subprime crisis, “Animal Spirits” takes this avenue opened by Keynes to explore further this essential but somehow previously ignored aspect of economics, using the modern tools developed by BE.

(Come to think of it, a lot of people still think that, don’t they?) I doubt Keynes would have recognized what we know call “Keynesian”. The stories of Wyatt Earp and company, the shootout at the O.K. Clavin, who has written books on Dodge City and Wild Bill Hickok, delivers a solid narrative that usefully links significant events—making allies of white enemies, for instance, in facing down the Apache threat, rustling from Mexico, and other ethnically charged circumstances. The author is a touch revisionist, in the modern fashion, in noting that the Earps and Clantons weren’t as bloodthirsty as popular culture has made them out to be.

A Wealth of Common Sense is a blog that focuses on wealth management, investments, financial markets and investor psychology. I manage portfolios for institutions and individuals at Ritholtz Wealth Management LLC. More about me here. I am always looking for the right mix of adventure and excitement, while not containing materials that will animal spirits be traumatic and therefore that he won’t finish the book. The bonds between the children and their spirit animals made for interesting character development. We were doing fine until the sort of “climax” battle scene, where everything gets very violent and spirit animals and humans get thrown off cliffs, run through with swords, etc.

Ratings & Reviews

They do this by drawing on the greater understanding of human psychology that exists today, and which Akerlof and Shiller, along with other economists, have incorporated into the relatively new field of behavioral economics. Read it and learn how leaders can channel animal spirits–the powerful forces of human psychology that are afoot in the world economy today. Akerlof and Shiller explore how animal spirits contribute to the performance of the macroeconomy. The range of issues they cover is broad, including the business cycle, inflation and unemployment, the swings in financial markets and real estate, the existence of poverty, and the way monetary policy works. I think it will age rather well as both a narrative of the financial crisis and as a sort of manifesto of what the “New Keynesian” approach to macroeconomics is all about, but it’s not as rigorous as I’d expected.

Spirit Airlines’ pet policy: Here’s how to fly with your pet on Spirit – The Points Guy

Spirit Airlines’ pet policy: Here’s how to fly with your pet on Spirit.

Posted: Sat, 13 Aug 2022 07:00:00 GMT [source]

It does not require much prior economics study but it still has much to teach the economics specialist. Chapter 7 discusses why animal spirits make central banks a necessity, and there is a post script about how they can intervene to help with the current crises. Chapter 3 discusses corruption and bad faith, and how growing awareness of these practices can contribute to a recession, in addition to the direct harm the practices cause themselves. This includes the propensity to produce not just what people really need but what they think they need, like the mortgage-backed securities, “a modern form of snake oil,” the authors declare. Shiller, a Yale professor, originated the phrase “irrational exuberance” before Alan Greenspan made it famous, and in his research he has documented the rise and fall of home prices going back decades, to demonstrate that the latest surge was far and away the greatest in American history.

Book details

Every month you’ll receive 3-4 book suggestions–chosen by hand from more than 1,000 books. You’ll also receive an extensive curriculum in PDF form right away. Email us at with any feedback, recommendations, or questions.

  • The second coming of the Great Depression is, like the original, a direct result of animal spirits.
  • And if you want to understand why they think that way, and how it screwed up our economy this book will help.
  • I prefer authors who approach both of these topics with a collegial spirit and the humility to understand there is much work still to be done.
  • Shiller, a Yale professor, originated the phrase “irrational exuberance” before Alan Greenspan made it famous, and in his research he has documented the rise and fall of home prices going back decades, to demonstrate that the latest surge was far and away the greatest in American history.
  • The stories of Wyatt Earp and company, the shootout at the O.K.

Without saying how, the book aspires to go further and calls for a new standard model. The assumption of rational optimisation is a gross simplification, no doubt, but despite all the drawbacks emphasised in the book, it has been a highly productive one. Shiller and Akerlof would be the last to deny the power of the insights it has yielded. At issue is whether a psychologically enriched standard model would be too complex to offer useful simplifications. The standard model plus ad hoc modifications suited to the particular case might be the best economics can do. “Terrible Things Could Happen To Us,” about the ripple effect of an unexpected death, sucks the reader in immediately.

It is these changes in belief and then the difficulty in changing those ‘once bitten, twice shy’ feelings back again that relate directly to animal spirits and that have a direct impact on the future growth in the economy. It is for this reason that the authors recommend re-regulation of the economy – as providing some sense of the system being far and not rigged is an important first step to giving people their belief back in the system, and without that belief, the system basically collapses. Chapter 13 suggests that animal spirits can be used to explain the persistence of poverty among ethnic minorities, describing how working class minorities have different stories about how the world works and their place in it, compared to working class white people. The authors argue that the effects of animal spirits make a strong case for affirmative action. Chapter 9 is about why there is a trade off between unemployment and inflation.

Characteristics Of A Developed Economy

The author’s youthfulness helps to assure the inevitable comparison with the Anne Frank diary although over and above the sphere of suffering shared, and in this case extended to the death march itself, there is no spiritual or emotional legacy here to offset any reader reluctance. Distinguished Professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley. Robert J. Shiller is the best-selling author of Irrational Exuberance and The Subprime Solution . He is the Arthur M. Okun Professor of Economics at Yale University.

He also introduced the world to “animal spirits,” coining that phrase to describe a range of emotions, human impulses, enthusiasms and misperceptions that drive economies — and ultimately unwind them. The economists who interpreted Keynes “rooted out almost all of the animal spirits — the noneconomic motives and irrational behaviors — that lay at the heart of his explanation for the Great Depression,” ­Akerlof and Shiller declare. The cover sort of promised an engaging text about the ways our “animal spirits” twist and override our rational choices. Instead, it’s essentially an extended overview of methodological debates within the economics profession. The “road map for reversing the financial misfortunes besetting us” that the publishers promised is simply not there. The second part of the book tries to apply these “animal spirits” to real-world problems in macroeconomics; this is where the book comes up a little short.

First published in 2009, these two Nobel Prize winning economists discuss here in great detail the role of human psychology in market economies. They point out that most economists assume that humans are economically motivated and rational in their economic decisions despite irrefutable evidence to the contrary. The chapter on the TARP is full of unexplained jargon and not very useful, also the chapter on affirmative action doesn’t cohere well with the rest of the book.

List Of High Impact Forex News


The real-timeEconomic Calendarcovers financial events and indicators from all over the world. The Real-time Economic Calendar only provides general information and it is not meant to be a trading guide. The Real-time Economic Calendar may also be subject to change without any previous notice.


As is released at wide intervals, the bureau also releases preliminary figures at the end of each month. The consumer price index is the change in the price of a basket of goods and services. This is because unemployment data is important to the Federal Reserve when it comes to setting interest rate policy. If unemployment is high, then the Fed is more likely to cut rates in order to stimulate hiring.

Trading Economics offers a rather poor legend, which is mostly a textual description and does not cover all the styling features used in the calendar. has calendar filter settings that also pass for being a sort of a legend. FXStreet doesn’t have a legend per se but offers a textual description of the calendar, which will help you to understand how it works. Econoday provides a complete legend for all icons used throughout the calendar. The 11 top calendars below are introduced in alphabetical order and then assessed according to their parameters and special features.

Market Data

Inflation rates measure the change of prices in goods and services over a specific period of time. Just like labour market statistics and GDP reports, inflation data is a major market-mover in Forex. The economic calendar includes information about major economic events, as well as political news and the impact they have on the Forex market.

  • The languages are Arabic, Chinese , French, German, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Turkish, and Vietnamese.
  • Learn how to trade forex in a fun and easy-to-understand format.
  • The Federal Open Markets Committee holds their meetings eight times a year to determine the monetary policy of the United States.
  • Needs to review the security of your connection before proceeding.
  • Trading in this market involves buying and selling world currencies, taking profit from the exchange rates difference.

Mahathir Mohamad and other critics of speculation are viewed as trying to deflect the blame from themselves for having caused the unsustainable economic conditions. Currency futures contracts are contracts specifying a standard volume of a particular currency to be exchanged on a specific settlement date. Thus the currency futures contracts are similar to forward contracts in terms of their obligation, but differ from forward contracts in the way they are traded. In addition, Futures are daily settled removing credit risk that exist in Forwards. They are commonly used by MNCs to hedge their currency positions. In addition they are traded by speculators who hope to capitalize on their expectations of exchange rate movements.

More Forex

However, the level of interaction possible with the chart differs from calendar to calendar. This section makes an attempt to assess the quality of the charts provided by the economic calendars. We have seen some traders and websites suggest that trading the NFP news driver is too risky.

  • It means they have a strong impact on Forex market and can make it move strongly.
  • There is also a quick link named Why Investors Care, which describes the importance of the indicator for the economy.
  • However, the level of interaction possible with the chart differs from calendar to calendar.

If leverage our trading plans and all of our alert systems, you can detect when the market is moving for almost any reason, including unexpected news events. Parallel and inverse pair groupings using The Forex Heatmap® forex heatmap. This is a strong movement on the GBP/USD of over 100 pips after the GBP news. Having a tool like this along with the news can turn news trading into a profitable venture.

However, fundamental analysis​​ is just as important in the modern trading world as technical analysis. News releases such as earnings reports and changes to interest rates and inflation can significantly impact the markets. Learn how to trade the news and spot potential trading opportunities within the financial markets. These may be 10 of the highest impact economic releases but there are literally hundreds each month released by all global economies that can affect foreign exchange rates. The impact from these economic events can be immediate, such as when a sudden move in forex rates comes out significantly different from the expected consensus. Regardless of what type of trader you are, you should always keep a close eye on the economic releases using an economic calendar.

List is updated as we receive new blog submissions and re-ranked every few weeks. FXOpen, with its extensive global reach, a wide range of services, strong growth, and an experienced team of professionals, is your best traveling partner along the road to success. FX News Group is the leading site providing real-time coverage of the global Forex and CFDs trading industry. Stay up-to-date on the latest Headlines, Retail and Institutional Forex trading news and more.

Risk aversion

The choppy action in financial markets continue in the second half of the week as investors assess the latest central bank commentary and data releases. The US Dollar Index stays on the back foot early Friday following Thursday’s rebound and the 10-year US T-bond yield retreats toward 4%. ISM will release the February US Services PMI report later in the day.

Top 4 Things Successful Forex Traders Do – Investopedia

Top 4 Things Successful Forex Traders Do.

Posted: Sat, 25 Mar 2017 00:42:43 GMT [source]

The top-tier inter market accounts for 51% of all transactions. From there, smaller banks, followed by large multi-national corporations , large hedge funds, and even some of the retail market makers. Central banks also participate in the foreign exchange market to align currencies to their economic needs. In the 17 hours before the release, EUR/USD was confined within a tight 30-pip trading range. This is the strongest and the most important economic news with the highest possible impact. I mean, you should not expect to have it changed every month to form a nice and strong trade setup for you.

Economic indicator analysis

Historically, any changes in the non-farm payrolls have moved very closely with quarterly GDP changes, meaning that, essentially, non-farm payrolls can be used as a sort of proxy for the GDP. The main difference between the GDP and non-farm payrolls is that the latter are released on a monthly basis, while the former comes out only quarterly and typically with a delay. If you’re a casual trader currently improving your forex awareness and looking for ways to boost your output through new skills and strategies, then you’ve come to the right place.


Unexpected news reports that miss market forecasts can send shockwaves through the market. As a price action trader, you have a distinct advantage over other market participants using something other than price action. You have the ability to read the news through your charts using strategies such as the pin bar and inside bar. Just remember to stick to the daily and 4 hour time frames with the exception of the inside bar, which should only be traded on the daily time frame. Next we will get into how to strategically position your trades around major news events so as to minimize your risk. This is convenient if you only want to display certain types of news events or are only interested in specific currency pairs.

Chip Designer Arm Intends to List in New York

Countries try to delicately balance interest rates with inflation rates, but the relationship between the two is very complex and difficult to manage. Low interest rates encourage consumer spending, but do not bring in foreign investment while higher interest rates discourage consumer spending, but do bring in foreign investment. The bottom line is that many times, interest rates can be a double-edged sword.

Forex Trading for Beginners Forex Trading Guide – CMC Markets

Forex Trading for Beginners Forex Trading Guide.

Posted: Fri, 17 Jan 2020 09:15:47 GMT [source]

There is sufficient volatility and different assets can be traded with high liquidity and low spreads. The best overlap is the London/New York active hours (1300hrs GMT – 1600hrs GMT). In any case, a Forex economic calendar groups the most important news reports into an easy-to-follow table. Many of those calendars even sort the reports by their anticipated market impact. When a high impact news event is around the corner and you have a position that is well into profit, you have more options.

central bank

As a result, the USD value drops and currency pairs like EUR/USD will go up, and so you can buy EUR/USD. Released on the first Friday of every month, this indicator is one of the most important reports on the calendar for a lot of forex traders. Non-Farm Payrolls are released in line with the Employment Situation Report by the Bureau of Labor Statistics , so this report has a lot of power behind it. One reason for this is the timing of the report, because the business cycle and employment levels are closely related.