Accounting Concepts and Conventions Business - Variety of Latest News Around the World

Accounting Concepts and Conventions Business


A lot of times, suppliers are not paid exactly when they deliver the goods. The accrual period allows the supplier to note the income from delivering goods at the time those goods were delivered and not the time when those goods were paid for. The accrual concept allows for precise measurement of income and expenses. The accrual concept allows for the income and expenses to be stated in the same accounting period that it was incurred in and not in the accounting period in which the income was obtained or the expenses were paid. Usually, when keeping books, accountants do not think that the businesses would soon be bankrupt or be liquidated; this allows the accountants to put a price on assets that can be correct for a long time.

If the business records this cost as the cost of the business, then it will misguide the actual profit and loss of the business. Income should be properly “matched” with the expenses of a given accounting period. In addition, a cautious view is taken for future problems and costs of the business (the are “provided for” in the accounts” as soon as their is a reasonable chance that such costs will be incurred in the future.

This concept assumes that the organization and business owners are two independent entities. Hence, the business translation and personal transaction of its owner are different. For example, when the business owner invests his money in the business, it is recorded as a liability of the business to the owner. Similarly, when the owner takes away from the business cash/goods for his/her personal use, it is not treated as a business expense.

This annual accounting period imitates a basic 12-month calendar period. The accounting period concept serves the purpose of analysis and comparison of the financial data of the company for two different periods. When two different periods are referred to, analysis can be made regarding various financial parameters that suggest the company’s growth or downfall.

How Accounting Period Work?

No doubt, we reduce the value of assets providing depreciation to assets, but we ignore the market value of the assets. Accounting is the process of recording, summarizing, and reporting financial transactions to oversight agencies, regulators, and the IRS. This concept allows for the value of an asset to be noted in the balance sheet at the price at which it was purchased, or cost price, as opposed to the current price of that asset. The importance of the accounting concept is visible in the fact that its application is involved in every step of recording a financial transaction of the entity.

  • Capitalization is an accounting method in which a cost is included in the value of an asset and expensed over the useful life of that asset.
  • These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts.
  • If assigning the monetary value to the transactions is not possible, it will not be recorded in the financial statement.
  • But the owner can’t wait for an unlimited period to know the financial status of the business.
  • This fact makes the problem of measuring income for an accounting period the most difficult problem in accounting.

Now if we conclude that the values of coats and jackets are Rs 2,000 and Rs 15,000 respectively, then we can easily book the value of stock as Rs 29,500 (as a result of 5000+7500+2000+15000) in our books. In other words, the revenue concept states that revenue is realized when cash is received or the right to receive cash on the sale of goods or services or both have been created. In brief, the accrual concept states that revenue is recognized when realized and expenses are recognized when they become due and payable irrespective of the cash receipt or cash payment. Thus, the financial year’s entire duration is one year, and its beginning and end dates are fixed and cannot be changed, in contrast to the accounting period, which can be cut or extended from one year. Income statements for management are therefore prepared more frequently.

4­–5 Calendar Year

A capital asset is an asset with a useful life longer than a year that is not intended for sale in the regular course of the business’s operation. Finance Strategists is a leading financial literacy non-profit organization priding itself on providing accurate and reliable financial information to millions of readers each year. While the true profit or loss of a business can only be determined when the business finally closes down, it is clearly unwise to wait that long before learning about its financial health. It is useful in comparison of financial data of two or more periods. For example, a business may choose a fiscal year from Feb. 1 to Jan. 31 or observe a week fiscal year, where each year rotates between being 52 or 53 weeks long. If a business wants to select the fiscal year for tax reporting, they can do so by submitting their first income tax return observing that tax year.

You need to know about revenue recognition , the matching principle , and the accrual principle. Transactions Of The BusinessA business transaction is the exchange of goods or services for cash with third parties (such as customers, vendors, etc.). The goods involved have monetary and tangible economic value, which may be recorded and presented in the company’s financial statements. The periodicity concept states that the entity or the business needs to carry out the accounting for a definite period, usually the financial year. The period for drawing financial statements can vary from monthly to quarterly to annually. It helps in identifying any changes occurring over different periods.

5 Accounting period Concept

Where accounting policies are changed, companies are required to disclose this fact and explain the impact of any change. Our accounting is based on the assumption that a business unit is a going concern. We record all the financial transaction of a business in keeping this point of view in our mind that a business unit is a going concern; not a gone concern. Otherwise, the banker will not provide loans, the supplier will not supply goods or services, the employees will not work properly, and the method of recording the transaction will change altogether. Accounting is full of assumptions, concepts, standards, and conventions.


The matching concept refers to reporting of the revenues and expenses in the same time period. The revenues and expenses of a company must be recognized by the company under the same accounting period. The money measurement concept refers to the transaction recorded by a business only in terms of money. What it means is that for a business, an account book can record only those transactions which involve monetary transfers. Any other transfers or transactions which do not involve any money transfer are not recorded into the accounts books. States that only those transactions are recorded and measured in monetary terms.

What is Accounting Period Concept?

Due to this policy, income and expenditure are divided into categories i.e. capital nature and revenue nature. The year that begins on January 1 and ends on January 31 is termed as calendar year whereas the year that begins on April 1 and ends on March 31 is termed as financial year. However, not all businesses are required to adhere to the one-year rule. Our goal is to deliver the most understandable and comprehensive explanations of financial topics using simple writing complemented by helpful graphics and animation videos. We follow strict ethical journalism practices, which includes presenting unbiased information and citing reliable, attributed resources.

Its related discuss the accounting period concept transactions must all be recorded during the same time frame. Obligatory accounting provisions must be created to ensure that the matching principle is upheld. With this convention, accounts recognise transactions at the point of sale or transfer of legal ownership – rather than just when cash actually changes hands.

What are Accounting Conventions?

The fiscal year refe to an annual period that does not end on December 31. The International Financial Reporting Standards allows 52 weeks as an accounting period. There are many companies that follow the 52 or 53 weeks fiscal calendar for their financial tracking and reporting. On the other hand, the sale of goods on the credit of $2000, will be recorded as an income because the ownership of the goods has transferred to buyers even though it was not received in cash.

accounts book

The results of each interval will represent the company’s financial result in each such interval. Thus, the one-by-one comparison is possible only regarding the accounting period. Whether a company has incurred losses or profits is a vague question if any fixed interval is not allotted. Thus, the concept gives meaning to financial statements and helps the investors properly analyze financial results.

2022 Preliminary Results –

2022 Preliminary Results.

Posted: Tue, 28 Mar 2023 09:04:07 GMT [source]

For example, if you want to see the changes in cash levels over the course of the business and all their relevant transactions, you would look at the general ledger, which shows all the debits and credits of cash. The accounting cycle incorporates all the accounts, journal entries, T accounts, debits, and credits, adjusting entries over a full cycle. Here, if we want to book the value of stock in our accounting record, we need the value of coats and jackets in terms of money.

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